Autor: Rodrigo M. S. Moita

WP 083 The Economics of Sub-optimal Policies for Traffic Congestion

Abstract – Economic theory prescribes a (pigouvian) congestion tax in order to alleviate the negative effects of traffic congestion. It is simply a matter of internalizing a negative externality. However, traffic congestion is a pervasive problem in cities across the world, and a congestion tax is seldom applied. This paper tries to understand why this is the case. In order to do so, we estimate the welfare and traffic effects of alternative policies to be applied to the city of Sao Paulo; a congestion charge and a rotation system (or license plate restriction). With a dataset containing information on origin, destination and mode choice, we estimate a individual demand model for transportation mode. These demands are in turn used to run counter-factuals to evaluate the welfare costs of both policies. The results show that the congestion tax performs better than the rotation system in terms of aggregate welfare, but the distribution of these losses are very distinct. The congestion tax negatively affects a larger number of people with lower intensity than the rotation. Plus, the rotation system concentrates the heavier losses in an even smaller group, and thas little or no effect on driving decisions of those who owns more than one car. These results support the argument that the rotation system is chosen since it affects less people and causes little or no welfare loss on the richer...

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WP071 – Running Away from the Poor: Bolsa-Familia and Entry in School Markets

Abstract – Policies designed to reduce inequality may fail because socioeconomic strati_cation can reappear through the private school system. We develop a theoretical model linking the skill distribution of the student population to the pro_tability of private schools. We use panel data of Brazilian municipalities to examine the relationship between test scores dispersion and private school entry. Bolsa-Familia, an important conditional cash transfer program, is used as a source of exogenous variation for the test scores’ dispersion in the public system. We show that towns where the students’ skill distribution widened because of Bolsa-Familia were more likely to attract new private schools. Download do Paper Ano: 2014 Working-paper: 071 Rodrigo M. S. Moita Visite o website Ler todos os Posts de Rodrigo M. S. Moita’s Share...

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WP007 – Permanent Excess Demand as Business Strategy: An Analysis

O mercado de ensino superior brasileiro é objeto de estudo deste artigo, de autoria de Eduardo C. Andrade (Insper), Rodrigo M. S. Moita (Insper) e Carlos E. Lobo e Silva (PUC-RS). Ao analisar as razões pelas quais as instituições precificam mensalidades abaixo do valor de equilíbrio do mercado, o artigo verifica que a estratégia visa provocar demanda contínua e excessiva, além de maior seletividade. Em última instância, as instituições buscam elevar a qualidade do corpo discente já que este quesito ajuda a melhorar a reputação da escola e, ainda, é o que mais pesa sobre a decisão do candidato de onde estudar. O trabalho discute –  e confirma – a teoria de que a alta seletividade gera bons retornos ao negócio ao melhorar o nível das aulas e, portanto, contribui para maximizar os lucros no longo prazo. Assim, a demanda e seletividade altas no presente permitirão à escola cobrar mensalidades maiores no futuro. Para chegar a essas conclusões, o estudo analisou dados do Censo de Educação Superior e do Enade (Exame Nacional de Desempenho dos Estudantes), ambos conduzidos pelo MEC. A amostragem envolveu programas de graduação em Administração de Empresas de 298 instituições instaladas em São Paulo, estado que concentra 24.1% das escolas de ensino superior do país.  O estudo calculou, ainda, o ‘investimento’ do setor que aposta nessa estratégia de ‘diferenciação’(renda perdida para garantir alta demanda): mais de R$5...

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