Autor: Miguel Nathan Foguel

WP 091 The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

Abstract – Women and men work in occupations, industries, firms, and jobs that are predominantly occupied by workers of the same gender. We investigate if and to what extent the male-female wage gap can be accounted for by the degree of female segregation along these dimensions. Different from the previous literature, we use longitudinal data from a large employer-employee data set from Brazil (Relação Anual de Informações Sociais – RAIS) and employ various fixed effects models to control for unobserved heterogeneity across workers, establishments, and worker-establishment job matches. In sharp contrast to past studies, our results show that the wage effects of female segregation are rather small after controlling for these forms of unobserved heterogeneity. Download do Paper Ano: 2016 Working-paper: 091 Miguel Nathan Foguel Ler todos os Posts de Miguel Nathan Foguel’s Share...

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WP046 – Efeitos dos Pisos Salariais Estaduais sobre o Mercado de Trabalho

Este trabalho, de autoria de Carlos Henrique Corseuil (IPEA), Miguel Foguel (IPEA) e Marcos Hecksher (IPEA), investiga os impactos de pisos salariais estabelecidos acima do salário mínimo nacional sobre os seguintes indicadores: proporção de empregados com remuneração inferior ao piso de referência; taxa de emprego; taxa de informalidade e hiato salarial entre empregados com e sem carteira de trabalho assinada. O estudo verifica que, desde a autorização legal para que governos estaduais propusessem pisos superiores ao mínimo, ocorrida em 2000, a valorização real do salario mínimo vem intensificando-se. Com base em microdados das oito últimas edições da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), o trabalho estuda os efeitos provocados pelos pisos instituídos no intervalo 2002-2009, no Paraná e em São Paulo, para três categorias ocupacionais distintas. O estudo detecta que, para ambos os estados, a introdução dos pisos teve efeitos heterogêneos. Embora para dois dos três grupos verificados não tenham sido encontrados efeitos expressivos sobre nenhuma quatro das variáveis, para um grupo específico do PR e outro de SP foi encontrado algum grau de cumprimento da lei, como ajuste do mercado de trabalho à introdução do piso, diminuição da parcela de trabalhadores com remuneração abaixo dele e aumento da taxa de emprego – isto sem que houvesse aumento da informalidade. Outras evidências indicaram que o setor informal também se beneficiou, em proporções similares ao formal, da introdução dos...

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WP065 – The Impact of the Expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the Time Allocation of Youths And Their Parents

ABSTRACT – This paper evaluates the impact of the 2007 expansion of the Bolsa Família program to families with youths aged 16 to 17 years (entitled Benefício Variável Jovem) on the time allocation of youths and on the labor supply of their parents. A differences-in-differences intention to treat estimator was used to compare households among the poorest 20 per cent with 16 years old youths with households in the same income bracket with 15 years old adolescents before and after the expansion. The results show that granting the benefit had a positive and significant impact on school attendance, helping bridge 25% of the gap in school attendance between rich and poor households, and on the decision of young people to study and work at the same time. The effects on school attendance were stronger for males and when the child was the youngest in the household. No impacts were found on the parents’ labor supply. Download do Paper Ano: 2012 Working-paper: 065 Miguel Nathan Foguel Ler todos os Posts de Miguel Nathan Foguel’s Share...

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WP042 – The Effects of a Youth Training Program on Youth Turnover in Brazil

ABSTRACT – Large youth unemployment rates are a structural characteristic of most economies. In Brazil this problem is accompanied by very high youth labor turnover rates, which suggests that the job destruction margin plays an important role in explaining high unemployment rates for this age group. Our main objective in this paper is to provide a first evaluation of a large subsidized training program (Lei do Aprendiz, Apprentice’s Act) targeted to young workers. The program was introduced in 2000 in Brazil with the intention to help the placement of young workers and their attachment to formal jobs. We make use of a huge longitudinal dataset (Rais, Relatório Annual de Informações Sociais), based on administrative data collected by the Labor Ministry, that contains information on the employment histories of all formal workers in Brazil from 2001 to 2006. We attempt to measure the impact of the program on five different outcomes that represent formal labor market attachment and remuneration, using other temporary workers as a control group. We employ three distinct estimation procedures to deal with self-selection in program participation that exploit a discontinuity in its age requirement: 18 year olds could not participate in the program between 2000 and 2005. We use a standard 2SLS, which we denote as parametric IV and two recently proposed estimators: i) a semi-parametric IV due to Battistin and Rettore (2008), and ii) the adjusted matching estimator proposed by Dias...

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WP033 – Foreign Capital and Gender Differences in Promotions

Primeiro estudo a examinar diferenças de gênero nas promoções com base em micro dados de um país emergente, este artigo busca averiguar se o gênero, de fato, importa no momento da ascensão a um cargo gerencial. O trabalho, de autoria de Danilo Coelho (Ipea), Marcelo Fernandes (Queen Mary University of London) e Miguel Foguel (Ipea), constata que há maior diferenciação em firmas brasileiras do que estrangeiras, comparando o tempo que a promoção leva para acontecer entre os dois grupos. Embora a hipótese de ‘teto de vidro’ tenha sido confirmada nas companhias internacionais, a barreira é significativamente maior nas companhias...

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