Autor: André Portela de Souza

WP 104 – Short Long-Term Effects Of a Child-Labor Ban

Abstract – This is the first study that investigates the short and long-term causal effects of a child-labor ban. We explore the law that increased minimum employment age from 14 to 16 in Brazil in 1998 and uncover its impact on time allocated to schooling and work in the short term and on school attainment and labor-market outcomes in the long term. We use cross-sectional data from 1998 to 2014 and apply a fuzzy regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the ban at different points of individuals’ life-cycles. Our estimates show that the ban reduced incidence of boys in paid work activities by 4 percentage points or 46 percent. We find that the fall in child labor is mostly explained by the change in the proportions of boys working for pay and studying and observe an increase in the proportion of boys only studying as a consequence. The results suggest that the ban reduced boys’ participation in the labor force. We follow the same cohort affected by the ban over the years and find that these short-term effects persisted until 2003 when they turned 18. We pooled data from 2007 to 2014 to check whether the ban affected individuals’ stock of human capital and labor-market outcomes. Our estimates suggest that the ban did not have long-term effects for the whole cohort, but found some indication that it...

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WP 102 The Fire-Armed Police Effect: Evidences from a Quasi-Natural Experiment in Brazil

Abstract -We estimate the impact of fire-armed police on violent crimes (homicides and acts of aggression) in a quasi-natural experiment in Brazil. In 2003, Brazilian legislators approved a law that regulates the use of firearms by the municipal police. It establishes that municipalities with 50 thousand or more inhabitants are allowed to have local police with firearms. We explore this population eligibility criterion as an instrumental variable of firearm possession in a linear regression discontinuity design. Using different data sources at the municipality level for selected years from 2002 to 2012, we find robust results that a municipal police force with firearms significantly reduces crime compared with a municipal police force without firearms. Moreover, we find suggestive evidence that the effect is partly due to greater police efforts such as more arrests and the incapacitation of criminals. Finally, we demonstrate that one of possible effect (spillover) of deterrence (i.e., migration of potential criminals from one municipality to its neighbor) is not detected. Download do Paper Ano: 2016 Working-paper: 102 André Portela de Souza Ler todos os Posts de André Portela de Souza’s Share...

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WP 080 – Labor Earnings Dynamics in Post-Stabilization Brazil

Abstract – This paper analyzes both the levels and evolution of wage inequality in the Brazilian formal labor market using administrative data from the Brazilian Ministry of Labor (RAIS) from 1994 to 2009. After the covariance structure of the log of real weekly wages is estimated and the variance of the log of real weekly wages is decomposed into its permanent and transitory components, we verify that nearly 60% of the inequality within age and education groups is explained by the permanent component, i.e., by time-invariant individual productive characteristics. During this period, wage inequality decreased by 29%. In the first years immediately after the macroeconomic stabilization (1994-1997), this decrease is explained entirely by reductions in the transitory component, suggesting that the end of the macroeconomic instability was a relevant factor in reducing inequality. In the second sub-period (1998-2009), the decrease is mostly explained by reductions in the permanent component. Finally, we show that education and age account for a sizable share of the permanent component (54% on average). Download do Paper Ano: 2015 Working-paper: 080 André Portela de Souza Ler todos os Posts de André Portela de Souza’s Share...

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WP061 – Child Labor and Learning

ABSTRACT – This paper investigates the impact of working while in school on learning outcomes through the use of a unique micro panel dataset of students in the São Paulo municipal school system. The potential endogeneity of working decisions and learning outcomes is addressed through the use of a difference-in-difference estimator and it is shown that the results are robust. A negative and significant effect of working on learning outcomes in both math and Portuguese is found. The effects of child work from the benchmark regressions range from 3% to 8% of a standard deviation decline in test score which represents a loss of about a quarter to a half of a year of learning on average. Additionally, it is found that this effect is likely due to the interference of work with the time kids can devote to school and school work. Download do Paper Ano: 2013 Working-paper: 061 André Portela de Souza Ler todos os Posts de André Portela de Souza’s Share...

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WP025 – The Impact of Structured Teaching Methods on the Quality of Education in Brazil

This paper estimates the impact of the use of structured methods on the quality of education for students in primary public school in Brazil. Structured methods encompass a range of pedagogical and managerial instruments applied in the educational system. In recent years, several municipalities in the state of São Paulo have contracted out private educational providers to implement these structured methods in their schooling systems. Their pedagogical proposal involves structuring of curriculum content, development of teacher and student textbooks, and the training and supervision of teachers and instructors. Using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the fourth- and eighth-grade students in the municipalities with structured methods performed better in Portuguese and mathematics than did students in municipalities not exposed to these methods. We find no differences in passing rates. However, we are unable to rule out of possibility that unobservable characteristics are driving this results. Download do Paper Ano: 2012 Working-paper: 025 André Portela de Souza Ler todos os Posts de André Portela de Souza’s Share...

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